References and supportive materials

Home page
  1. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-(copd). Accessed 20 August 2021.
  2. Soriano, J. B., Kendrick, P. J., Paulson, K. R., Gupta, V., Abrams, E. M., Adedoyin, R. A., … & Moradi, M. (2020). Prevalence and attributable health burden of chronic respiratory diseases, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine8(6), 585-596.
  3. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-respiratory-conditions/copd/contents/copd. Accessed 20 August 2021.
  4. Perera, W. R., Hurst, J. R., Wilkinson, T. M., Sapsford, R. J., Müllerova, H., Donaldson, G. C., & Wedzicha, J. A. (2007). Inflammatory changes, recovery and recurrence at COPD exacerbation. European Respiratory Journal29(3), 527-534.
  5. Rochester, C. L., Vogiatzis, I., Holland, A. E., Lareau, S. C., Marciniuk, D. D., & Puhan, M. A. Enhancing implementation, use, and delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 20151373, 10.

About COPD

Understanding COPD
  1. Yawn BP, Mintz ML, Doherty DE. GOLD in Practice: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment and Management in the Primary Care Setting. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2021;16:289-299 https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S222664
  2. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/confirm-diagnosis/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. The COPD-X Plan. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-respiratory-conditions/copd/contents/copd. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/confirm-diagnosis/c1-aetiology-and-natural-history/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  5. Video: Understanding COPD (Lung Foundation Australia)
  6. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Book-COPD-The-Basics-July2020.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  7. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Book-Better-Living-with-COPD-Dec2016.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  8. COPD Online patient education. https://cope.lungfoundation.com.au. Accessed 10 June 2021.

Diagnosis
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/confirm-diagnosis/c2-diagnosis/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Yawn BP, Mintz ML, Doherty DE. GOLD in Practice: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment and Management in the Primary Care Setting. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2021;16:289-299 https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S222664
  3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pulmonary-function-tests. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/news/getting-the-right-diagnosis-through-lung-function-tests/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  5. Video: Taking a spirometry test (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)

Disease stages
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/confirm-diagnosis/c3-assessing-the-severity-of-copd/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Tønnesen, P. (2013). Smoking cessation and COPD. European respiratory review22(127), 37-43.
  3. British Lung Foundation. https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/end-of-life/physical-signs. Accessed 21 January 2022
  4. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-respiratory-conditions/copd-associated-comorbidities-risk-factors/contents/risk-factors-associated-with-copd. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  5. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/p-prevent-deterioration/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
Symptoms
  1. Better Health Channel. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/lung-conditions-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd#symptoms-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/after-your-diagnosis-title/breathlessness/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. Law, N., Ruane, L. E., Low, K., Hamza, K., & Bardin, P. G. (2018). Dysfunctional breathing is more frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than in asthma and in health. Respiratory physiology & neurobiology247, 20-23.
  4. Luckett, T., Phillips, J., Johnson, M. J., Farquhar, M., Swan, F., Assen, T., … & Booth, S. (2017). Contributions of a hand-held fan to self-management of chronic breathlessness. European Respiratory Journal50(2).
  5. Mete B, Pehlivan E, Gülbaş G, Günen H. Prevalence of malnutrition in COPD and its relationship with the parameters related to disease severity. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018;13:3307-3312. Published 2018 Oct 11. doi:10.2147/COPD.S179609.
  6. Video: Managing fatigue and energy conservation (Lung Foundation Australia)
  7. Wüst RC, Degens H. Factors contributing to muscle wasting and dysfunction in COPD patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007;2(3):289-300.
  8. Continence Foundation of Australia. https://www.continence.org.au/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  9. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/o-optimise-function/o7-comorbidities/o73-osteoporosis/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  10. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/o-optimise-function/o7-comorbidities/o7-5-sleep-related-breathing-disorders/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  11. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/resources/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-fact-sheet/. Accessed 27 August 2021.
  12. Sleep Health Foundation. https://www.sleephealthfoundation.org.au/fact-sheets.html. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  13. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-respiratory-conditions/copd-associated-comorbidities-risk-factors/contents/about-copd-and-associated-comorbidities. Accessed 6 January 2022.
  14. Cavaillès, A., Brinchault-Rabin, G., Dixmier, A., Goupil, F., Gut-Gobert, C., Marchand-Adam, S., … & Diot, P. (2013). Comorbidities of COPD. European Respiratory Review22(130), 454-475.
  15. Chatila, W. M., Thomashow, B. M., Minai, O. A., Criner, G. J., & Make, B. J. (2008). Comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society5(4), 549-555.
  16. Owens, R. L., & Malhotra, A. (2010). Sleep-disordered breathing and COPD: the overlap syndrome. Respiratory care55(10), 1333-1346.
  17. American Sleep Apnea Association. https://www.sleepapnea.org/when-sleep-apnea-and-copd-meet-overlap-syndrome/. Accessed 6 January 2022.
  18. Latiers, F., Vandenabeele, M., Poncin, W., & Reychler, G. (2021). Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review. The clinical respiratory journal.
  19. Pumar, M. I., Gray, C. R., Walsh, J. R., Yang, I. A., Rolls, T. A., & Ward, D. L. (2014). Anxiety and depression—Important psychological comorbidities of COPD. Journal of thoracic disease6(11), 1615.
Healthy habits
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/o-optimise-function/o6-non-pharmacological-interventions/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Halpin, D. M., & Tashkin, D. P. (2009). Defining disease modification in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease6(3), 211-225.
  3. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/lung-health/protecting-your-lungs/quitting-smoking/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/health-topics/physical-activity-and-exercise/physical-activity-and-exercise-guidelines-for-all-australians?utm_source=health.gov.au&utm_medium=callout-auto-custom&utm_campaign=digital_transformation. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  5. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/support-services/lung-disease-and-exercise/lungs-in-action/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  6. Video: Benefits of physical activity programs (Lung Foundation Australia)
  7. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/o-optimise-function/o6-non-pharmacological-interventions/o610-nutrition/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  8. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/o-optimise-function/o6-non-pharmacological-interventions/o65-education-and-self-management/o651-psychosocial-support/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  9. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/d-develop-a-plan-of-care/d5-treat-anxiety-and-depression/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  10. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/resources/self-care-template/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  11. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/resources/mind-matters-series-playlist/. Accessed 24 September 2021.
Medications
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/p-prevent-deterioration/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Book-Better-Living-with-COPD-Dec2016.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. Lung Foundation Australia. http://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/after-your-diagnosis-title/inhaler-devices/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. National Asthma Council Australia. https://www.nationalasthma.org.au/living-with-asthma/resources/patients-carers/factsheets/puffer-and-inhaler-care. Accessed 7 January 2022.
  5. National Asthma Council Australia. https://www.nationalasthma.org.au/living-with-asthma/how-to-videos. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  6. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/resources/?search=inhaler. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  7. National Asthma Council Australia. https://www.nationalasthma.org.au/living-with-asthma/resources/patients-carers/factsheets/spacer-use-and-care. Accessed 7 January 2022.
  8. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/o-optimise-function/o3-corticosteroids/o3-1-oral-corticosteroids/. Accessed 7 January 2022.
  9. National Health Information Service (Scotland). https://www.nhsinform.scot/tests-and-treatments/medicines-and-medical-aids/types-of-medicine/corticosteroids. Accessed 7 January 2022.
  10. Herath, S. C., Normansell, R., Maisey, S., & Poole, P. (2018). Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10).
  11. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance. Accessed 7 January 2022.
  12. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/after-your-diagnosis-title/oxygen/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  13. McDonald, C. F., Whyte, K., Jenkins, S., Serginson, J., & Frith, P. (2016). Clinical practice guideline on adult domiciliary oxygen therapy: executive summary from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)21(1), 76.

Flare-ups

About flare-ups
Early management
Treatment and prognosis
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/x-manage-exacerbations/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/x-manage-exacerbations/x2-copd-acute-exacerbation-plan/x22-optimise-treatment/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. Hartl, S., Lopez-Campos, J. L., Pozo-Rodriguez, F., Castro-Acosta, A., Studnicka, M., Kaiser, B., & Roberts, C. M. (2016). Risk of death and readmission of hospital-admitted COPD exacerbations: European COPD Audit. European Respiratory Journal47(1), 113-121.
  4. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/p-prevent-deterioration/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
Preparing for hospital discharge
  1. Better Health Channel. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/servicesandsupport/preparing-to-leave-hospital. Accessed 24 September 2021.
  2. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/x-manage-exacerbations/x3-refer-appropriately-to-prevent-further-deterioration-p/x37-discharge-planning/. Accessed 27 August 2021.
  3. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/x-manage-exacerbations/x3-refer-appropriately-to-prevent-further-deterioration-p/x35-develop-post-discharge-plan-and-follow-up/. Accessed 27 August 2021.
  4. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/resources/managing-copd-exacerbation-checklist/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  5. Tsai, L. L. Y., Alison, J. A., McKenzie, D. K., & McKeough, Z. J. (2016). Physical activity levels improve following discharge in people admitted to hospital with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic respiratory disease13(1), 23-32.
Information for carers
Communication during a flare-up

Recovery

Early recovery
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/x-manage-exacerbations/x3-refer-appropriately-to-prevent-further-deterioration-p/x36-pulmonary-rehabilitation/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Book-Better-Living-with-COPD-Dec2016.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. Puhan, M. A., Gimeno‐Santos, E., Cates, C. J., & Troosters, T. (2016). Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (12).
  4. Kjærgaard, J. L., Juhl, C. B., Lange, P., & Wilcke, J. T. (2020). Early pulmonary rehabilitation after acute exacerbation of COPD: a randomised controlled trial. ERJ open research6(1).
  5. Lung Flare Care. https://lungflarecare.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2021/08/Early-Recovery-Action-Plan-v2-nodiary.pdf. Accessed 5 November 2021.
  6. Video: Kitchen Exercises (Lung Foundation Australia)
Pulmonary rehabilitation
  1. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/health-professionals/clinical-information/pulmonary-rehabilitation/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Book-Australia-and-New-Zealand-Pulmonary-Rehabilitation-Guidelines-Feb2017.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2021.
  3. McCarthy, B., Casey, D., Devane, D., Murphy, K., Murphy, E., & Lacasse, Y. (2015). Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (2).
  4. Gordon, C. S., Waller, J. W., Cook, R. M., Cavalera, S. L., Lim, W. T., & Osadnik, C. R. (2019). Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in COPD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chest156(1), 80–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.04.009.
  5. Video: Pulmonary rehabilitation (Lung Foundation Australia)
  6. Storey, S., Erbas, B., & Holland, A. E. (2018). Why do people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease repeat pulmonary rehabilitation? Perspectives of patients and health professionals. Chronic respiratory disease16, 1479973118816420.
Accessing pulmonary rehabilitation
Models of rehabilitation
  1. Holland, A. E., Cox, N. S., Houchen-Wolloff, L., Rochester, C. L., Garvey, C., ZuWallack, R., … & Singh, S. J. (2021). Defining Modern Pulmonary Rehabilitation. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. Annals of the American Thoracic Society18(5), e12-e29.
  2. Hansen, H., Nolan, C. (2021). Emerging models. In: Holland AE, Dal Corso S, Spruit MA, eds. Pulmonary Rehabilitation [ERS Monograph]. Sheffield, European Respiratory Society, 2021; pp 294-310 [https://doi.org/10.1183/2312508.X.10019720].
  3. Holland, A. E., Mahal, A., Hill, C. J., Lee, A. L., Burge, A. T., Cox, N. S., … & McDonald, C. F. (2017). Home-based rehabilitation for COPD using minimal resources: a randomised, controlled equivalence trial. Thorax72(1), 57-65.
  4. Horton, E. J., Mitchell, K. E., Johnson-Warrington, V., Apps, L. D., Sewell, L., Morgan, M., … & Singh, S. J. (2018). Comparison of a structured home-based rehabilitation programme with conventional supervised pulmonary rehabilitation: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Thorax73(1), 29-36.
  5. Hansen, H., Bieler, T., Beyer, N., Kallemose, T., Wilcke, J. T., Østergaard, L. M., … & Godtfredsen, N. S. (2020). Supervised pulmonary tele-rehabilitation versus pulmonary rehabilitation in severe COPD: a randomised multicentre trial. Thorax75(5), 413-421.
Overcoming barriers to rehabilitation
  1. Santana, V. T., Squassoni, S. D., Neder, J. A., & Fiss, E. (2010). Influence of current smoking on adherence and responses to pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy14(1), 16-23.
  2. McCarthy, B., Casey, D., Devane, D., Murphy, K., Murphy, E., & Lacasse, Y. (2015). Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (2).
  3. Puhan, M. A., Gimeno‐Santos, E., Cates, C. J., & Troosters, T. (2016). Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (12).
  4. Cox, N. S., Oliveira, C. C., Lahham, A., & Holland, A. E. (2017). Pulmonary rehabilitation referral and participation are commonly influenced by environment, knowledge, and beliefs about consequences: a systematic review using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Journal of physiotherapy63(2), 84-93.
  5. Gordon, C. S., Waller, J. W., Cook, R. M., Cavalera, S. L., Lim, W. T., & Osadnik, C. R. (2019). Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in COPD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chest156(1), 80–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.04.009.
  6. Keating, A., Lee, A., & Holland, A. E. (2011). What prevents people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from attending pulmonary rehabilitation? A systematic review. Chronic respiratory disease8(2), 89–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1479972310393756.

Support

Accessing healthcare after flare-ups
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/x-manage-exacerbations/x3-refer-appropriately-to-prevent-further-deterioration-p/x39-clinical-review-and-follow-up/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/support-services/support/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/d-develop-a-plan-of-care/d5-treat-anxiety-and-depression/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. Lecheler, L., Richter, M., Franzen, D. P., Rampini, S. K., Cheetham, M., Jenewein, J., … & Nowak, A. (2017). The frequent and underrecognised co-occurrence of acute exacerbated COPD and depression warrants screening: a systematic review. European Respiratory Review26(144).
Peer support
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/d-develop-a-plan-of-care/d6-referral-to-a-support-group/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/support-services/peer-support/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/news/connect-to-a-network-of-support/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. Video: Overview of peer support (Lung Foundation Australia)
Carer support
  1. British Lung Foundation. https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/carers/who-is-a-carer. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/after-your-diagnosis-title/mental-health/caring-for-a-loved-one/. Accessed 24 September 2021.
  3. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/news/avoiding-carer-burnout/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. Carer Gateway, Australian Government. https://www.carergateway.gov.au/. Accessed 22 October 2021.
  5. Video: The value of carers (Lung Foundation Australia)
Lifestyle changes
  1. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/d-develop-a-plan-of-care/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/o-optimise-function/o6-non-pharmacological-interventions/o65-education-and-self-management/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. Zwerink, M., Brusse‐Keizer, M., van der Valk, P. D., Zielhuis, G. A., Monninkhof, E. M., van der Palen, J., … & Effing, T. (2014). Self management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3).
  4. Williams, M. T., Effing, T. W., Paquet, C., Gibbs, C. A., Lewthwaite, H., Li, L., Phillips, A. C., & Johnston, K. N. (2017). Counseling for health behavior change in people with COPD: systematic review. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease12, 2165–2178. https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S111135.
  5. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/resources/my-copd-checklist/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  6. Bourbeau, J., Nault, D., & Dang-Tan, T. (2004). Self-management and behaviour modification in COPD. Patient education and counseling52(3), 271-277.
  7. Video: Living with COPD (British Lung Foundation)
Other considerations
  1. Better Health Channel. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/chronic-illness#additional-demands-of-chronic-illness. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  2. Health Direct. https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/management-of-chronic-conditions. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  3. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Book-Better-Living-with-COPD-Dec2016.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  4. Institute for Respiratory Health. https://www.resphealth.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Flying-with-Oxygen-Guide_2017.pdf?x16365. Accessed 24 September 2021.
  5. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/after-your-diagnosis-title/hot-and-cold-weather/. Accessed 1 October 2021.
  6. Air Rater. https://airrater.org/. Accessed 1 October 2021.
  7. Emergency WA, Government of Western Australia. https://www.dfes.wa.gov.au/emergencywa/prepare.html. Accessed 1 October 2021.
  8. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/news/looking-after-your-lungs-during-the-bush-fire-season/. Accessed 1 October 2021.
  9. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/copd-x-plan/x-manage-exacerbations/. Accessed 10 June 2021.
  10. The COPD-X Plan. https://copdx.org.au/covid19-useful-links/. Accessed 5 November 2021.
  11. Video: Living with a lung condition in a COVID world (Lung Foundation Australia)
  12. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/lung-health/protecting-your-lungs/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/vaccine/. Accessed 13 January 2022.
  13. COPD Online Patient Education. https://cope.lungfoundation.com.au/module-three-how-you-can-better-help-yourself/plan-prepare-pace-pause/. Accessed 24 September 2021.
  14. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/support-services/support-and-palliative-care/. Accessed 27 August 2021.
Palliative care
  1. Palliative Care Australia. https://palliativecare.org.au/resource/what-is-palliative-care/. Accessed 17 December 2021.
  2. Lung Foundation Australia. https://lungfoundation.com.au/patients-carers/support-services/support-and-palliative-care/. Accessed 17 December 2021.
  3. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/palliative-care-services/palliative-care-services-in-australia/contents/overview. Accessed 17 December 2021.
  4. Better Health Channel. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/servicesandsupport/Palliative-care-dealing-with-common-symptoms#complementary-therapies. Accessed 13 January 2021.
  5. Collins, A., Brown, J. E., Mills, J., & Philip, J. (2021). The impact of public health palliative care interventions on health system outcomes: A systematic review. Palliative Medicine35(3), 473-485.
  6. Davies, A. (2019). Sleep problems in advanced disease. Clinical Medicine19(4), 302.
  7. Chin, C., & Booth, S. (2016). Managing breathlessness: a palliative care approach. Postgraduate medical journal92(1089), 393-400.
  8. Marie Curie. https://www.mariecurie.org.uk/professionals/palliative-care-knowledge-zone/symptom-control/sleep-issues#family. Accessed 13 January 2022.
  9. Carer Gateway. https://www.carergateway.gov.au/financial-help/financial-help-aids-equipment. Accessed 13 January 2022.
  10. Independent Living Centres Australia. https://ilcaustralia.org.au/search_category_paths. Accessed 13 January 2022.
  11. Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/health-topics/palliative-care/planning-your-palliative-care/advance-care-planning. Accessed 13 January 2022.